The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at Neurosci Biobehav Rev See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Abstract The experimental question is whether or not sugar can be a substance of abuse and lead to a natural form of addiction. Sugar is noteworthy as a substance that releases opioids and dopamine and thus might be expected to have addictive potential. This review summarizes evidence of sugar dependence in an animal model. Four components of addiction are analyzed. Neural adaptations include changes in dopamine and opioid receptor binding, enkephalin mRNA expression and dopamine and acetylcholine release in the nucleus accumbens.
Conceptual There are some who suggest so as to alcoholism and drug abuse are not diseases at all and that they are not consequences of a common sense disorder as espoused recently by the American Society of Addiction Medicine ASAM. Some would argue that addicts be able to quit on their own and arbitrate their alcohol and drug intake. But, when controlled drinking fails, there can be successful alternatives that fit actual groups of individuals. In this authority opinion, we attempt to identify delicate differences in recovery, by clarifying the molecular neurobiological basis of each action of the 12 Step Program.
After that there are the other ones, l When the word addiction is brought to the table, the average attend to will normally picture alcohol and basis abuse, the usual demons some athletes have had to battle. Then around are the other ones, like femininity. From the athletes who openly acknowledge to being burdened with the compulsion of sex, to the ones who are purely womanizers, this is a totally serious thing that many absolute athletes have dealt with throughout their carrier. You have the usual suspects who like to keep their advance in the game in more behaviour than oneand in turn have gained their notorious playboy reputations. Then you have the wallflowers where most cases are kept quiet, until that individual instance when the other half of the good time will speak absent, bringing down a wrath of media attention and most likely destroy marriages.